In 1999, two Marine Protected Areas (MPA’s) were established off the coast of Upolu, Samoa. Since then we have seen major changes in sea level rise, sea surface temperature, and ocean pH, all of which contribute to the fatality of corals. This year 83 km of coral cover was sampled off the coasts of Upolu. Out of all the areas sampled, the highest coral cover was found within these MPA’s!
In order to manage the moving and changing oceans, our policy has to be flexible. Dynamic ocean management is a tactic that merges ecology with economics and social science to better protect the oceans over a changing range of space and time.