© 2019 by ocean everblue.

#keeptheoceaneverblue

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  • Diversity is incredibly important to healthy ecosystems! In 2012, scientists showed that loss of biodiversity from extinction or habitat loss can have similar negative effects on marine communities as global environmental change. 

>> A global synthesis reveals biodiversity loss as a major driver of ecosystem change. David U. Hooper. 2012.

 

  • After the US Shark Finning Prohibition Act of 2000, US imports of shark fins to China decreased, but the overall price of shark fins and their imports increased, suggesting the use of illegal markets to trade. A 2014 paper suggests that not only management through bans, but also protection through marine reserves, alternative economic uses for sharks such as ecotourism, and a change in attitudes towards sharks is necessary for their protection and conservation.

>> The influence of culture on the international management of shark finning. Andrea Dell’Apa. 2014.

 

  • Shark populations are very vulnerable, and the loss of these apex predators in the ocean is having a top-down effect on the ecosystem. This means that prey of the sharks, the cownose ray, is increasing in numbers while the prey of the rays, scallops, are decreasing. This led to the collapse of the bay scallop fishery!

>> Cascading effects of the loss of apex predatory sharks from a coastal ocean. Myers et al. 2007. 

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  • A marine mammal study found that noise created by ships, sonar, aircrafts, seismic instruments, and construction activities increase stress in marine mammals, who respond to some of the lower pitch noises as a predator attack. Some avoid human sound sources to the extent that they change their migratory patterns. Intense amounts of sound also makes it difficult for marine mammals to communicate with each other, as vocal communication is their main method in the vast and dark waters.

>> Implications for Marine Mammals of Large-Scale Changes in the Marine Acoustic Environment. Peter L. Tyack. 2008.